"Success is not final, failure is not fatal: it is the courage to continue that counts."
Winston Churchill

Articles of Faith

Articles of Faith

  • The word faith is synonym of the Arabic word ‘’Iman’’. 
  • To have strong belief or trust in someone or something is known as Faith. 
  • The fundamental (basic) beliefs, which serve as the foundation of a religion, are called articles of faith. 
  • All the messengers of Allah tried their best to transfer these beliefs to their followers. 
  • The Holy Prophet (pbuh) too began propagating his message by focusing attentions on these beliefs. 
  • These beliefs are related in Iman-e-Mufasil in these words:
  • "I believe in Allah, in His Angels, in His Books, in His messengers, in the Last Day and in the fact that everything good or bad, is decided by Allah, the Almighty Allah, and in the life after death". 
  • These articles of Faith are as under:
  1. Belief in the Oneness and Unity of Allah or Tauheed.
  2. Belief in the Angels.
  3. Belief in Revealed Books.
  4. Belief in the Prophets.
  5. Belief in the Last Day of Judgment.
  6. Belief in Life after Death.
  7. Belief in Predestination.




   TAUHEED

  • Tauheed or the belief in the Oneness of Allah is the first and the main principle of Islam.
  • It means that Allah is the Only Creator and Sustainer of the universe. 
  • He is Ever-Living without a beginning or an end (the first and the last). 
  • He is Independent while others are dependent on Him for their existence and survival. 
  • He is the source and support of all life. 
  • He is the only one worthy of worship. Allah is Omnipotent (having unlimited authority or power). 
  • He knows everything; the hidden and the manifest (obvious, apparent). 
  • He is not bound by space and time; He is everywhere and has knowledge of the past, present and future. 
  • Surah Ikhlaas proclaims this in the most comprehensive way: 
  • '' Say He is Allah, the One. Allah, the Eternal. He does not beget nor is He begotten, and there is none like Him'' (112:1-4)
  • Surah Ikhlaas is also called one-third of the Qur'an which means that one-third of the subject matter of the Qur'an revolves around Tauheed. 
  • A person becomes a Muslim just by believing and uttering the expression: 
  • '' There is no god but Allah and Mohammad (pbuh) is the Messenger of Allah''. The first part of this message occurs repeatedly in the Qur'an in slightly different shades. For example the Verse of Throne begins as: ''there is no God but He...'' (2:255)
  • The first Surah of the Qur'an begins as: ''Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds" (1:1).
  • According to the leading scholars of Islam, there are three kinds of Tauheed: 
  1. Tauhid-ar-Rabubiya (Oneness of Lordship of Allah)
  2. Tauhid-al-Auluhiya (Oneness in the Worship of Allah)
  3. Tauhid-al-Asma-wa-Sifat (Oneness of the names and qualities of Allah)\
  • Tauhid-ar-Rabubiya refers to the belief that Allah is Self-Existent; He is the Creator and the Sustainer of the universe. 
  • ‘’ Allah is the Creator of all things and He is the Guardian over all things’’ (39:62). Allah is Omnipotent, the Law Giver and the Judge. 
  • The verse of the Throne says: ‘’….who is there who can intercede in His presence except as He permits…’’ (2:255)
  • It also to the belief that He is entirely immune to all forms of human weaknesses and needs such as hunger, thirst and the need to rest or sleep etc. 
  • ‘’…no slumber ca seize Him nor sleep…’’ (2:255)
  • He is above the grip of space and time, ‘’ He is the First and Last, the evident and the hidden…’’ (57:3)
  • Tauhid-al-Auluhiya refers to the belief that since Allah is the creator, He is the only one worthy of worship. 
  • All supplication, beseeching (Pleading) and imploring (begging) are due only to Allah. 
  • So we as Muslims, must observe all the religious practices such as prayers, Hajj, fast and giving alms to the poor etc. for His sake only. 
  • ‘’I created Jinn and mankind only to worship me’’ (51:56)
  • ‘’ You alone we worship and Your aid we seek’’ (1:4).
  •  Tauhid-al-Asma-wa-Sifat refers to the belief that Allah is matchless not only in His Essence but also in His names and Attributes. 
  • This belief includes that we must not name or qualify Allah except with what He and His Messenger have named or qualified Him. 
  • None can be named or qualified with the names or qualifications of Allah, for example Karim, Raheem, Rehman etc. ‘’And there is none like unto Him” (112:5)
  • We must believe in all the qualities of Allah which He has stated in His Book or mentioned through His Messenger without changing, twisting or ignoring their meaning.
  • The acknowledgement of Tauheed is the fundamental belief in Islam and is the basis of salvation (rescue). 
  • The basic message of all the prophets was the same i.e. there is no god but Allah. 
  • All the previous scriptures preached the Unity of Allah but due to alterations made in their text over the passage of time, the doctrine (set of guidelines) of Tauheed was changed. Finally when the need arose for final and universal guidance, Allah sent His last Messenger with the Qur’an to set the people on the straight path and correct their beliefs. 
  • We cannot see Allah but His existence is confirmed when we ponder over the universe, that such an organized and well coordinated world could not have come into existence on its own; just like a letter cannot be written without an author. 
  • ‘’who created the seven heavens, one above the other. You will not see any flaw in what the Lord of mercy creates. Look again! Can you see any flaw? Look again! And again! Your sight will turn back to you, weak and defeated.’’ (67:3-4).





   SHIRK:

  • The Arabic word ‘’shirk’’ means ‘’to share’’. 
  • In religious sense it means associating partners with Allah. 
  • There is an Arabic proverb, ‘’things become known through their opposites.
  • ’’ In the light of this saying, it is necessary to understand the nature of Shirk for the better knowledge of the oneness of Allah. The avoidance of Shirk is the fundamental teaching of the Qur’an, because Shirk is nothing but the reverse side of Tauheed. 
  • Given the fact that the proclamation of Tauheed is the first pillar of Islam and Tauheed itself is the first principle of Islam, one begins o understand why Shirk is so strongly criticized and why. 
  • According to the Holy Qur’an it is the only unforgiveable sin: ‘’indeed Allah forgives not that a partner should be associated with Him, but less than that, He forgives whomsoever He wills.’’ (4:48)
  • The acknowledgement of the Unity of Allah is bound in human nature, since humans were created with the knowledge that ‘’there is no god but Allah.’’ 
  • The prophets were sent as a reminder of what was already in their original nature. 
  • Hence to associate others with Allah is to go against the most basic instincts of the human species. It is, so to speak, to go against human nature.





   BELIEF IN ANGELS

  • Belief in the existence of angels is an article of Islamic faith. 
  • The non-believers considered angels to be deities and Allah’s daughters. 
  • This article of faith purifies the belief in the unity of Allah. 
  • Allah has appointed many of His Angels for the management of this Universe. 
  • Angels have been created from light and are not visible to ordinary mortals. 
  • They belong to the category of the unseen unless they appear in human form. 
  • They perform their assigned duties according to the Decree (order) of God. 
  • They are sent to protect men, to administer Allah’s punishments, to carry His messages and to perform various other functions. 
  • Allah describes their entire submission to Him in the following words:
  • "They never disobey Allah's Command and do as they are commanded."(16:50) 
  • The Angels are also called messengers in the Holy Book as they conveyed the Divine message of Allah to the Prophets. 
  • The Angels were also appointed duties in the human form; they appeared before Abraham to give him the glad tidings of a son. 
  • Hazrat Lut was also warned about impending doom of his town. 
  • Hazrat Maryam was also blessed with the news of a Holy son by an angel Gabriel. 
  • Hazrat Zakriya also experienced the same experience of visiting of an angel. 
  • Angels are Allah's creation having necessary powers and qualities. 
  • They are not His daughters nor are they objects of worship. 
  • They have no knowledge except that what Allah has taught them. 
  • They prostrated before Adam when Allah commanded them to do so. 
  • Angels glorify and praise Allah. They never get tired. 
  • They neither need sleep nor do they require the things needed by human beings. 
  • Angels are the guardians of Hell-fire. 
  • They will welcome in Heaven all those who obey Allah's commands and will throw the wrong doers into Hell. 
  • The name of the angel in charge of Paradise is Rizwan while Malik is in charge of Hell. There are many Angels like Kiram-an-katibeen i.e. angels on our shoulders having records of our good and bad deeds. 
  • They are many in numbers. 
  • The Qur’an says: ‘’But verily, over you (are appointed angels) to protect you- kind and honorable, writing down (your deeds)’’. (82:10-11) 
  • There are also Munkar and Nakeer, they go to the graves of the newly dead to ask them questions. Besides, there are many angels having various assignments with them they are as under;
  1. Hazrat Gabriel, who brought revelations from Allah to the Prophets including Hazrat Muhammad (pbuh) He is called 'Rooh-ul-Allah' or ‘Rooh-ul-Ameen’ because he never changes the messages of Allah.
  2. Hazrat Izrael, the angel of death. He is responsible for taking our souls upon death.
  3. Hazrat Israfeel, who will blow the trumpet at the time of the end of the world, i.e. on the Day of Judgment. With his second blow everyone will rise again for the Day of Judgment.
  4. Hazrat Mekaeel, who is responsible for rainfall and distribution of ‘rizq’( means of sustenance).




   MARKING SCHEME
  • Angels are entirely obedient to God.
  • They are created
  • And are made of light.
  • They have particular tasks.
[Give 1 mark for one example of an angel performing a task, e.g. Jibril bringing
Revelation to Muhammad.
Give 1 extra mark for another example of a different angel performing a task.]






   BELIEF IN THE LAST DAY

  • Belief in life after death, bodily resurrection, final judgment and the eternal life in Paradise and (or) Hell is one of the articles of faith. 
  • This world as we know it will come to an end one day and the dead will rise from their resting place for their final and fair trial. 
  • Muslims believe that the time of Qiyama is preordained by Allah but is unknown to man. 
  • The trials and problems preceding and during the Day of Resurrection are described in detail in the Quran and Hadith. The Quran says:
  • “Anyone who denies God, His angels, His books, His messenger and the Day of Judgment has gone far, far astray.”(4:136)
  • Islam teaches us that there are four definite stages of every human life.
  • The first is in the womb of our mother. There, the flesh is united with the spirit. 
  • According to a tradition of the Holy Prophet, this joining takes place some time after the fortieth day of conception.
  • The second stage of our life begins in this world. 
  • We are born, grow from children to adults and then reach old age and die. 
  • Some people die in their youth while others live longer than most. 
  • The third stage starts after our death. 
  • A person’s life on this earth ends with his/her death, after which another life begins in the state of Barzakh, which is an intermediate state in which the soul is placed after death till resurrection. 
  • The state of grave is therefore, the same state as that of Barzakh. 
  • Immediately after death the lesser Judgement or Qiyamat-e-Sughra takes place, after which the righteous are spoken of as tasting the fruit of their good deeds while the evil doers have to taste the evil consequences of their wrong deeds.
  • The fourth and final stage of our existence is eternal. 
  • It will begin with the end of the world. 
  • The entire universe with all forms of life will be brought to its ends by its Creator. 
  • At many places in the Quran the details of the onset and outcome of the Day of Judgment have been given. 
  • That Day will start by the first blow of Trumpet by Hazrat Israfil. 
  • The Quran says:“When the Trumpet is sounded a single time. When the earth and its mountains are raised high and then crushed to powder with a single blow. On that Day the Great Event will come to pass.” (69:13-15) 
  • The second Trumpet will be blown and there will be resurrection of everything that existed in this world. 
  • A new world will emerge with a new sky. 
  • All human beings who had lived on this earth since its inception (start) will come back to life, this is called Hashr.
  • Now all humans will stand before Allah for accountability of all their deeds in the worldly life. Allah will set the Scale of Ultimate Justice. 
  • The account of our deeds will be examined in many ways. 
  • Some people will be interrogated in secrecy and if the person concerned confesses his/her sins honestly, fearing Allah, they will be pardoned. 
  • Some will be subjected to a very severe interrogation during which they will have to explain their each and every deed and utterance. 
  • The people undergoing such an interrogation will be sent to Hell. 
  • No injustice will be done on the Day of Judgement. 
  • People’s hands, feet and tongue will bear witness against them. 
  • There will be no bargaining, no friendship or intercession. 
  • Our good and evil deeds will be sorted out. 
  • If we persecuted or harmed anyone in any way, we may lose some of our good deeds to them by way of compensation and if we have no good deeds left then the other person’s bad deeds will be transferred to our account. 
  • Then our deeds will be weighed on the scale mentioned before and the true weight of our conduct will be shown to us.
  • People will be given their book of deeds which they will be asked to read. 
  • The good will be given their record in their right hand, while the sinners in their left hand or from behind their backs. 
  • The Qur’an says: ‘’then he who is given his record in his right hand will have an easy reckoning (calculation) and return to his people well pleased. But whoever is given his record from behind his back will cry out for destruction and he will enter a blazing fire.’’ (84:7-12)
  • Finally according to the deeds people will be awarded forever and ever. 
  • The Quran promises eternal dwelling place as a reward in Paradise for the pious and the righteous. 
  • The evildoers and the sinners, on the other hand will be given horrible punishment.
  • When the judgment is finished, a bridge will be stretched over the top of the pit of Hell. 
  • This bridge, called the Sirat, will lead to Paradise which will be on the other side. 
  • Everyone will have to cross this bridge(Sirat). 
  • The Prophets and the righteous people will zoom right over and enter Paradise. 
  • The treading of the bridge by the people will be based on the nature and enormity of their good or bad deeds. 
  • The two states of Heaven and Hell are not spiritual. 
  • They will be experienced in physical forms by the new bodies with which Allah will raise men up.   



   MARKING SCHEME
  • An angel will blow the last trump.
  • Everyone will be resurrected from the dead at the end of time.
  • All will have to face judgement before God.
  • Actions performed during one’s lifetime will be examined.
  • The consequence will be either paradise or hell.
  • [1 mark for supporting quotations.]





   BELIEF IN REVEALED BOOKS

  • Human beings are the servants of Allah and need guidance to carry out their various duties and responsibilities. 
  • This guidance is mentioned in Books revealed to various Prophets. 
  • So for this guidance Muslims are required to believe in the Books. 
  • Allah says in the Holy Book:
  • "Those who believe in the revelation sent down to you (Mohammad) and in what was sent before you…" [2:4]
  • There were several revealed books but only four out of them are famous"
  1. The Holy Quran, revealed to the Holy Prophet (pbuh).
  2. Injil or the Gospels was revealed to Isa. The Christians failed to act upon it; they distorted it and introduced the doctrine (policy) of trinity and redemption through crucification; although Isa clearly told his followers that Allah was his and their Lord. According to the Quran Injil confirms the Torah.
  3. Zubur or Psalms, revealed to David.
  4. Torah was revealed to Moses for the guidance of Bani Israel. It contained Allah’s command, warning and mercy. The original book was changed. Its followers distorted the words of Allah. Allah says, ‘’they change the words from their (right) places and forget a good part of the message that was sent.’’(5:13)
  5. The Qur’an also mentions the Suhuf of Ibrahim
  • Books were also revealed to other messengers, who were sent at different times among different nations having different languages. 
  • Their teachings were in the language they spoke and they were for the guidance of that particular community. 
  • The teachings contained were, the Uniqueness and Oneness of Allah, the concept of reward and punishment for one's deeds in the life after death. 
  • All the heavenly books were from Allah and whatever Allah said in them is to be believed in. However due to changes and alternations, their originality and purity has been brought into question. 
  • The preservation of the Holy Scriptures was the duty of their respective followers. 
  • The basic purpose of these books was the acknowledgment of the Oneness of Allah. 
  • These books made it clear to the people that they should believe in the prophets of their times. 
  • If anyone failed to do so, their faith in Allah would not merit any rewards. 
  • These books also testified that all the Prophets were truthful and they should not differentiate among them. 
  • Each Prophet (pbuh), after all, was sent by Allah with guidance, and the primary message of each was the same. 
  • These books also reformed the wrong beliefs of people concerning Allah’s Essence, His Messengers, books, and the life after death and acts of worship. 
  • Instead of preserving the scriptures in their memories and on tablets, they distorted them. The outcome is that these scriptures cannot be relied upon to be the same as when they were sent down.
  • Since Islam is based on the Quran, and the Qur’an is Allah’s last book, Allah took the responsibility of preserving whatever is contained in it. 
  • The following holy verse testifies this, “We have sent down the Quran Ourself and We Ourself will guard it…” (15:9)
  • It is the living miracle of the Quran that no one ever produced even a verse like that of the Quran. 
  • The Qur’an, unlike the other divine books which were meant for a particular community, is a guide book for all communities for all times to come. 
  • The Qur’an is a universal book, sent to the entire mankind for all ages.




   MARKING SCHEME

  • These contain God's will and guidance for humankind.
  • They were given from God to humans by a succession of prophetic
  • Messengers.
  • They include the Suhuf, the Tawrat, the Zubur, the Injil and the Qur'an. 
  • (1 mark for two or more of these, 2 marks for four or more)
  • Each was meant for a particular community,
  • Except the Qur'an which was meant for the whole world.




   BELIEF IN PREDESTINATION

  • Belief in the Divine Decree (order by a leader) is mentioned in the Imaan-e-Mufassal.
  • This means that everything, good or bad, is decided by Allah, is an article of faith and without this our faith is not complete. 
  • Faith in predestination means that the Most High Allah has decreed all things; whatever happens in the world whether it is concerning the conditions and operations of things or the happenings in our lives is decided by Allah.
  • The belief in Divine predestination includes belief in 4 things:

  1. Allah is the creator of everything. According to the Muslim Faith, Allah is the sole Creator and Cherisher of the universe. His power is not limited in any sphere. The Qur’an says: ‘’ Allah is the Creator of all things and He is the Guardian over all things’’ (39:62)
  2. Allah knows everything; what has, is and will happen.Therefore it will not be wrong to say that God not only has knowledge of each and every affair of the entire universe but also all the matters and occurrences are under His control. ‘’…He knows what is in front of them and what is behind them…’’ (2:255)
  3. Allah has recorded all that has passed, all that is happening and all that will happen. We know from the Ahadith of the Holy Prophet that amongst the very first creations of Allah was the pen. He commanded it to write down His knowledge. Thus all that is to happen is contained in the written tablet of the decrees of Allah which is called the Loh-e-Mahfooz. ‘’Are you (Prophet) not aware that God knows all that is in the heavens and the earth? All this is written in a Record which is easy for God.’’ (22:70)
  4. Whatever Allah wills, happens and whatever He wills not, does not happen. We ourselves can see the Divine Will in many objects and phenomena around us. The Qur’an invites us to appreciate by saying: ‘’It is not permitted to the sun to catch up to the moon, nor can the night outstrip the day; each just swims along in its own orbit (according to the Divine Will)’’ (36:40). These are demonstrations of Allah’s unlimited power and command.

  • Similarly, man, the most supreme creation of Allah is no exception to this Divine Will. 
  • Humans have been granted liberty and free will, but at the same time they are submissive to the laws of nature. 
  • Allah has predestined the span of every person’s life, their share of good and ill fortune and the fruits of their efforts in accordance with His eternal knowledge. 
  • This is to say that He has ordained (designed) the things as they were to take place in this world and in the life to come. 
  • This however does not imply that whatever we do is predestined to be done by us and we have no freedom of action. 
  • No one is forced to do a certain thing because of its predestination. 
  • Allah has given every human the ability to do good or bad in life. People decide what to do, but Allah has knowledge of our deeds even before we were created. 
  • He knew what we could and would do but does not make us do it.
  • Constant praying to Allah is important because ‘’dua’’ or humble invocation is the only thing that can change our destinies
  • While Allah has given free choice to people, man has also been shown the correct way by means of revelation through His prophets. 
  • Man has the final choice to accept or decline this Divine guidance. His choice rests on his will as the Qur’an says: ‘’ Surely, We have shown him the way, whether he be grateful or ungrateful (rests on his will)’’ (76:3).





Marking Scheme

What does the statement ‘There is no ability or power except through Allah’ tell you about Muslim belief in Allah’s predestination and decree? [10]

Some candidates could say that belief in divine decree and predestination is mentioned in the Iman-e Mufassal, it is an article of faith without which a Muslim’s faith is incomplete. The above statement strengthens this belief and in order to secure higher levels candidates must refer to it in their answer. Good answers will also talk about human responsibility for what they do.

To what extent does this belief affect the daily living of Muslims? [4]
A sign of faith
Hope of compensation
No fear of death
Satisfaction






(Sir Iftikhar)


Articles of Faith Paper 2 












"Education is not preparation for life; education is life itself."
John Dewey